### begriffs

Tonight we leave the calm of the stratosphere and descend into the babbling of human language and strife of cabal dependencies. In short, I tried to do a regular programming thing.

JSON. It’s passing messages the world over, and I’d like my program to speak it too. Some Googling reveals that bos/aseson is the thing to use. I try to install it with cabal and apparently all the other things I had previously installed have put me in “cabal hell” and I have contradictory dependencies. No problem, blew all my installation away with rm -fr ~/.ghc ~/.cabal and installed hsenv. For you Ruby people, gem = cabal and rvm = hsenv. Even though doing so takes more space on your disk you should use hsenv.

So let’s take an example from the Aeson docs and parse a JSON array.

Prelude> :m +Data.Aeson
Prelude Data.Aeson> decode "[1,2,3]" :: Maybe [Int]

<interactive>:3:8:
Couldn't match expected type Data.ByteString.Lazy.Internal.ByteString'
with actual type [Char]'
In the first argument of decode', namely "[1,2,3]"'
In the expression: decode "[1,2,3]" :: Maybe [Int]
In an equation for it': it = decode "[1,2,3]" :: Maybe [Int]
Prelude Data.Aeson> :t decode
decode
:: FromJSON a =>
Data.ByteString.Lazy.Internal.ByteString -> Maybe a

Wait, what’s wrong with my string? Turns out that we often mean several things by “string” and these things are disambiguated in Haskell. One meaning is an array of Chars, which are big fat UTF-32 characters all in memory at once. Sadly this is wrong for JSON in two ways. First we often want to decode JSON from a stream, aka lazily. Second JSON is UTF-8. Enter Data.ByteString.Lazy.Char8, a representation of a lazy sequence of bytes which is an instance of the IsString typeclass. Perfect for slurping UTF-8 in from a socket, and exactly what Aeson uses.

We could explicitly convert our string literals to this type, but there’s a GHC extension to make this nicer. Enabling it will infer the type of string needed from context and use the function fromString (derived from IsString) to convert a string literal to the right type as needed. Once we import the needed type and enable the GHC extension our example works like we would expect.

-- having started ghci with -XOverloadedStrings
Prelude> :m +Data.Aeson
Prelude Data.Aeson> :m +Data.ByteString.Lazy.Char8
Prelude Data.Aeson Data.ByteString.Lazy.Char8> decode "[1,2,3]" :: Maybe [Int]
Just [1,2,3]`

Tomorrow I’ll continue toward making a real API web service in Haskell. It will power an in-app messaging ajax widget for other web sites. I met some people last week here in SF who want to add this type of feature to their site so I thought it would be a good way to put my Haskell to the test and power a JS widget. Who knows, maybe I can learn about compiling Haskell to JS to make the widget. All kinds of fun ahead!