### begriffs

Shh! Words get in your way. Let’s play functional charades, where you will understand a function by watching it in silence. This is part two of the “without words” series. It will help you to observe part one first.

Note you’ll need to run in ghci -XNoMonomorphismRestriction for it to allow some of this without you needing to specify type signatures.

#### return, empty, join, >>=

> pure 5 :: Maybe Int
Just 5
> return 5 :: Maybe Int
Just 5
> return 5 :: [Int]
[5]
> empty :: [Int]
[]
> empty :: Maybe Int
Nothing

> Just $Just 5 Just (Just 5) > join$ Just $Just 5 Just 5 > join [[1,2], [3,4]] [1,2,3,4] > (\x -> [x,x]) <$> [1,2]
[[1,1],[2,2]]
> join $(\x -> [x,x]) <$> [1,2]
[1,1,2,2]
> [1,2] >>= \x -> [x,x]
[1,1,2,2]

> Just 5 >>= return
Just 5
> [5] >>= return
[5]
> [5] >>= return . (+2)
[7]
> Nothing >>= return . (+2)
Nothing

> let prev = \x -> if x > 0 then return (x-1) else empty
> Just 1 >>= prev :: Maybe Int
Just 0
> return 1 >>= prev :: Maybe Int
Just 0
> return 1 >>= prev :: [Int]
[0]
> return 1 >>= prev >>= prev :: Maybe Int
Nothing
> [1,2] >>= prev
[0,1]
> [1,2] >>= prev >>= prev
[0]
> [1,2] >>= prev >>= prev >>= prev
[]