begriffs

Unlocking Deep HTTP with JavaScript, pt 1

December 31, 2013

When rich JavaScript apps first started getting popular a few years ago, it honestly took me a while to catch on. I mistakenly thought it was primarily an optimization of page load times, a technique that sacrificed simplicity and forced developers to reinvent mature technology like browser page-history.

I was wrong — I think client side apps provide a better developer experience fundamental ways. The design of server-side apps is built around historical browser limitations.

HTTP begin in 1991 as a simple protocol. It had one (idempotent) method, GET. You would use it to get documents over TCP. The essentially modern Version 1.1 was standardized at the beginning of 1997. Those were the days of Internet Explorer 2. Compared with the foresight and subtlety of HTTP 1.1 these browsers were quite primitive.

Browser technology improved slowly, and during this time we developers were getting accustomed to the status quo. But let’s stop and think of how little a vanilla (non JavaScript) page can do. It can basically do three things.

First thing: primitive transitions. The page can link to another page with a GET request. This link can control only the protocol, URL and query string. No headers beyond server-set cookies, and no other methods. The page can POST content type application/x-www-form-urlencoded using forms.

Second: when a new page loads, the browser can show it, or redirect. Until relatively recently some browsers failed even to handle all the redirect codes like 303. Forget reacting appropriately to HTTP status codes. Browsers neglected actions for some status codes, like refreshing the page on 503 (service unavailable) errors according to the Retry-After header. Browsers just load the page and wait.

Third: caching. With the slow dial-up connections of those days people pretty much had to get this one working. Of course there were plenty of quirks.

Enter XMLHTTPRequest. Looking back, this may be the most significant feature added to the browser, because it frees JavaScript from the default browser behavior. It was 2006 before this feature was widespread enough to really use. Whereas previously you could only set document.location for a blunt dynamic hyperlink, after the introduction of XMLHTTPRequest you could react to HTTP status codes, and read/write headers. You could fundamentally script the browsing experience.

But to me at least this power didn’t really sink in. A link is a link, right? A form is a form. I guess this Ajax thing is just for updating little parts of the page… My experience prevented me from thinking outside these conventions. In the next two blog posts I’m going to help you reimagine the possibilities for the way modern client-side apps interact with the server over HTTP. We’ll use pagination as a case study.

In the next post I’ll discuss a way to do server-side pagination . Hint, there won’t be any "?page=2" nonsense. In the post after that I’ll walk you through a way to extend AngularJS’s $resource service to automatically accommodate pagination by using HTTP to negotiate with the server.